The journey of Pedro Manuel de Urrea in Italy and the “Peregrinacion de las tres casas sanctas” (1517-1519), by Giuseppe Seche
The presence of the Peregrinación de las tres casas sanctas de Jerusalem, Roma y Santiago is registered in the collection of the noble Salvador Aymerich (1493-1563). This is a pilgrimage relationship written by Pedro Manuel de Urrea and printed in Burgos in 1523. The work describes the journey between Rome, Holy Land and Santiago de Compostela that Pedro did between 1517 and 1519. Along the way, the author described the characteristics (political, cultural, demographic, economic and religious) of the crossed countries: for this reason, the Peregrinación is an extraordinary source for the historian. This article analyses the information on the Italian part of the journey: in several cases, such as Cagliari, the Peregrinación provides valuable information and it results the first printed description of those cities and villages. Finally, the study allows to contextualize the presence of this book in the Aymerich’s library and in the intellectual environment of the Sardinian Renaissance.
Keywords: Pilgrimage; Description of Italy in the Renaissance; Demography; Libraries in the Renaissance.
Religious control of “marriage bed”: judicial proceedings in the episcopal curia of Grosseto in modern age (XVI-XVIII cent.), by Ilaria Bartolini
This research deals with the marriage practices in the Ancien Regime society. In particular, it is a study of the growing religious control by the end of XVI century when Church hierarchy begin a reinforced monitoring about marriages and other private cohabitations, trying to regulate with his authority private behaviors. The case study is Grosseto’s Episcopal See, a peripheral area in south Tuscany with very low population density and long traditional seasonal population / depopulation flows. Marriage practices and changing behaviors of the inhabitants are investigated in the judicial proceedings carried out in the Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop, from the late sixteenth century to the eighteenth century. From sources come out a very interesting and complex daily reality in which we can try to analize the complex and changing relationships between rules and transgressions. Where “Rule” was the Canonical Legislation on marriage fixed in the Concilio of Trento, while “Transgression” was becoming every deviant behavior such as concubinage, clandestine marriage, bigamy, adultery, regarded as dangerous sins / “crimes” and so to be corrected by the force and authority of the Bishop’s Court.
Keywords: Grosseto Episcopal See; Judicial Proceedings; Marriages and Private Cohabitations.
The Italian Jewish community in Tunisia, his relationship with Italy and France: a brief history, some testimonies, by Filippo Petrucci
The article is an analysis of the Italian Jewish community in Tunisia in the last years of World War II and the changes that occurred within the Italian Jewish community after the war. After a brief historical background, it outlines the relationship of “Livornese” with the French and Italian authorities, and with the Tunisian coreligionist; then, briefly, it describes the evolution of the community over time and up to World War II. The article highlights the strong connection of this community with its Italian roots but also with Judaism. In the second part of the text, through unpublished testimonies collected in various archives, the article describes the migration trajectories and, more generally, the decisions taken by the Italians Jews of Tunisia after the end of the war and after the dissolution of the Italian Jewish community (decided by the French authorities).
Keywords: Tunisia, Judaism, Livornesi, Testimonies, Italians
Get into the factory /going to the workshop. The employment market in Florence between industry and craftsmanship (1861-1922), by Anna Pellegrino
The article analyses the problem of employment in Florence during the second half of the nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth centuries: the role of personal and family networks, formal and informal channels, the interpersonal exchanges through which workers had access to employment. Focus on Florence has the advantage of highlighting the problem of employment market in a city where two forms of work, industrial one and craftsmanship, were significantly present in a period of intense transformation. The antithesis proposed in the title between “Get into the factory” and “going to the workshop” must be read considering this dichotomy. This opposition must be understood, however, not as a net contrast between the two systems of employment but rather as a continuous line on which historically they are not only situations that faithfully interpret one of the two polarities, but also a diversified series of combinations between the two opposing poles.
Keywords: Employment Market, Industrial Work, Craftsmanship, Factory, Workshop.
Anarchists in Rome in the late XIX century crisis: notes from a research in the registers of Regina Coeli prison (1880-1900), by Cristina Badon
In the second half of the 19th Century, in Rome, the renewed capital of the Kingdom of Italy, was in full swing an intensive activity in building industry and in the tertiary sector. A lot of unemployed people, chiefly coming from the former Papal State, settled there, hoping to find jobs. But since the Eighties a strong economic crisis had started, owing to negative circumstances and building speculation by the ruling class. The anarchist movement, which in Rome enjoyed a bigger support than socialist, who were set out for a legalistic strategy, played a fundamental role in the social struggles of those years. The Roman anarchists also had strong roots in the local underworld as well as the support of common criminals, who were often involved in harsh social struggles at the time. This essay is the result of a wider research still in progress which aims to offer some insight into historical events that are still not too well-known, by the analysing the matriculation register of Regina Coeli prison.
Keywords: Anarchism, Social Struggles, Prison, Public Security.
Birth, success and decline of corporate welfare in Terni (1886-1975), by Paolo Raspadori
The article deals with the evolution of the social benefits made available by the industrial firms set in the Terni area to their workers from the last fifteen-years of the Nineteenth century to the Seventies of the Twentieth century. The documents about this topic in the archives of the major companies of the city show, first of all, that the key factor for the existence of the corporate welfare was not the business size of the firm (in terms of employees or sales volume), but the owners and managers’ culture and awareness of the social context. Secondly, the Società Terni played a progressively dominant role in the creation of a welfare capitalism system and in the development of a paternalistic ideology. As far as these processes are concerned, Società Terni did exceed the comparable efforts put to use, in the same time, by other industrial firms of the area.
Keywords: Terni, corporate welfare, companies, workers
«Dai figli delle operaie a tutti i bimbi». The female deputies’ struggle for the crèches in the Italian Republic, by Michela Minesso
During the first republican period women member of the parliament focused their activities on themes connected to the protection of social rights and social policies. The battle to create a national network of nursery schools is part of this endeavour. The project, started already during the first legislature, had a turning point during the centre-left period, when emerged the idea of creating, instead of company nurseries, national nursery schools, to look after children independently by their parents’ occupation.
Keywords: Contemporary History, Parliament, Welfare, Women, Childhood