Waiting for the Conclave. Patronages, political strategies, and dynastic logics in the dispatches between Cardinal Alessandro Bichi and Mazarino (1654-1655), by Barbara Gelli
The article analyses the unpublished correspondence between Cardinals Giulio Mazzarino and Alessandro Bichi on the occasion of the Conclave of 1654-1655 that led to the election of Pope Alexander VII. Bichi was France’s main interlocutor in the Curia and his letters help to better understand his role as head of the French faction: they highlight the strategies used to compact the faction’s adherents, gain new supporters, and forge alliances with an unprecedented grouping of independent cardinals, the socalled “Flying Cardinals”. The work also highlights the considerable degree of autonomy granted to these figures, so much so that, in the present case, Bichi was able to complement the dictates of the Crown with his own dynastic logics.
Keywords: Conclave; Cardinal factions; Rome; France.
For the survival of the Empire. The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Nouvelle France and the Iroquois danger (1665-1668), by Giuseppe Patisso
In the first half of 17th century New France, the empire constituted by France in North America, had to face serious political and administrative difficulties. The fragility of the colonial government, entrusted to the Compagnie des Cent Associés, not allowed to put an end to the continuous attacks of the Iroquois Confederacy and to solve the critic under population of the North American colonies. When the Compagnie des Cent Associés failed, Louis XIV and Colbert took charge of the government of the empire. In 1665, to solve the military and demographic problems of New France, they decided to send to the New World the French-Piedmontese regiment known as Carignan-Salières.
Keywords: Nouvelle France; North America; Carignan-Salières Regiment; Iroquois Confederacy; Colonization Policies; Holy War.
«The French are hostile, and Indians their tools». The English and the Amerindian question in Nova Scotia (1713-1749), by Fausto Ermete Carbone
With the Treaty of Utrecht, England gained several regions in North America at the detriment of the French Empire. Among these, Acadia and Hudson Bay were particularly important from a strategic point of view. The management of the Acadian region, renamed Nova Scotia after the treaty, proved to be particularly complex for the British. This colony was largely under-populated, and the backbone of the population was made up of French Catholics – the Acadians – and several American-Indian tribes that were closely intertwined with New France. Essentially, it was a region with a well-defined socio-economic system that seemed to be not disposed to favour the alternation between the French and English at the lead of the colony. This paper aims to analyze the policy adopted by the English in order to resolve the social tensions that marked Anglo-Indian relations in Nova Scotia in the aftermath of the Treaty of Utrecht.
Keywords: Nova Scotia; Amerindian question; British Empire; New France; Mascarene’ s treaty.
The royal jubilee of June 7, 1925: a step towards the fascist monarchy, by Christian Satto
This article focuses on the image of the “Constitutional King” that the liberal press offered of Vittorio Emanuele III during his silver jubilee of 1925. Among the sovereigns of the House of Savoy who ruled over Italy, he was indeed the only one to celebrate a jubilee to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of his ascension to the throne. The liberal press linked the jubilee and the royal decision to celebrate it on the occasion of the Feast of the Statute to the constitutional nature of the Savoy monarchy. The aim of this campaign was to launch an appeal to the sovereign to remember him his role of custodian of the freedoms provided by the Statuto Albertino. Given the situation of Italy in 1925, recalling this function of the monarchy was a rather clear accusation of non-compliance with the pacts. In that decisive historical moment, the king should have intervened to safeguard the liberal institutions of parliamentary monarchy from fascism, laying the foundations for their restoration and consolidation.
Keywords: Monarchy; House of Savoy; Vittorio Emanuele III; 1925.
The crime of Giuseppe Miceli in the documents of the Historical Archives of the Italian Navy, by Sonia Gallico
A tragic episode took place on the afternoon of 20 September 1937 in the centre of Tunis: several cadets and sailors, disembarked from the Italian Navy’s training ships Vespucci and Colombo, went to the building where the newspaper «Le Petit Matin», together with the Garibaldi Club, and the Tunisian branch of the League for Human Rights, with its printed organ «L’italiano di Tunisi», were based. They found only one person, the young cabinet-maker Giuseppe Miceli, only 26 years old, treasurer of the club: after a brief scuffle, the young man was shot with a revolver. Was it a commissioned political crime or a random action? The resonance of the event was enormous, not only among the Italian population opposed to the Mussolini regime, but also among Tunisians and French people who reacted with deep understanding and cohesion, as demonstrated by the strikes of the port workers and the protest demonstrations in various Tunisian cities.
Keywords: Tunis; Giuseppe Miceli; training sailing ship Vespucci; «L’italiano di Tunisi»; 1937.
Basketball and women’s emancipation in Fascist Italy: the European Championship of Rome in 1938, by Saverio Battente
Basket was important to help the female emancipation process in Italy. After its pioneering step, during the liberal age, in which was considered a fun game for young ladies, basket managed to gain a competitive approach, imitation of the male model, started after the IWW, looking at the American example. That was really considerable to help a rise of a gender history even in the Italian peninsula. The importance of sport as an instrument of propaganda during the fascism regime was basic to help this process of emancipation. The basket European competition of 1938 in Rome, won by the Italian athletes, was the synthesis of this process.
Keywords: Sport; Gender; Fascism.