25 August 1591: shipwreck in Gdańsk, by Guido Vannini
On an August day in 1591, at the mouth of the Vistula, a ship from England bound for Lithuania sank, probably broken on the coast in front of Gdańsk. Here the Radziwiłł family waited to host a friend, the Marquis Bonifacio d’Oria, traveller and exile who, for religious conflicts, had left his rich fiefdoms and the great castle he had left in Apulia, wandering around Europe, until the fatal shipwreck, where he lost most of his possessions but not, miraculously, his rich library. And here lies all the charm of the episode, but also a lesson for Europe today. The regency of the city shows the extraordinary ability of a cultured, plural society, to cultivate a “vision” of the future for which to engage; and to “invest” in the long term, on projects whose fruits would be enjoyed by their descendants. So they hosted Bonifacio (now poor and alone), offered him citizenship (not only hospitality), a dignified existence and, with his books they founded an institution that, immediately, grew and came to constitute a prestigious element of identity for the entire community of Gdańsk. Thus emerges a Europe in which borders, at least as we have known them for two centuries did not exist. A Europe that, even conflictually, shared in a convinced way a culture and a civilization considered truly common. A society with the intellectual capacity and courage of welcoming the wayfarer: a glory that was shared in Europe, until it became a national characteristic, by the Republic of Venice and precisely by the Kingdom of Poland, lands of asylum for fugitives and persecuted people. A policy that finds in the “ideal city” of Zamość, with its geometric organization of urban spaces, equally attributed to the different ethnic as religious components, the authentic materialization of a “identity policy” of ancient tradition.
Keywords: Europe, Gdańsk, Zamosc, Borders, Asylum, Merchants, Nationality.
The technique as the identity of designer or the mourning of copying and invention in the fashion system (18th-19th century), by Audrey Millet
This article analyses the birth of fashion from the technical gesture of draftsman. Professionals with transverse know-how, draftsmen for silks, printed fabrics or wallpapers have a common characteristic: copying. Today, this practice is criticized but it is nevertheless the basis of the original gesture of the invention. Indeed, the designer is inspired, imitates and feeds on existing gestures, patterns, and styles. Nevertheless, the terms «copying» and «invention» are too moralizing and do not reveal the essence of the draftsman’s profession. In the first part, we will analyse the practices of imitation from the very beginning. On the other hand, we will examine the links between draftsman, technical invention, and aesthetics. Finally, we will propose a conceptual renewal based on the technical subconscious and the use of the draftsman.
Keywords: Draughtsman, Imitation, Invention, Adopting, Industrialization, Factories, 18th-19th centuries.
Europe of Nations: Italian Unification and Hungary, by Salvatore Barbagallo
Cavour’s political farsightedness lies in the critical reflection he matured on the causes of the nationalist movements of 1848. Even before many patriots, the Piedmontese statesman understood that Italy could only become a nation if the series of compatibility that international political balances required were created. It was a very broad political vision that placed the realization of the national unification of Italy in the framework of the inorientation of Habsburg politics. Such intentions, to tell the truth, had been theorized by Cesare Balbo but the ability of the Piedmontese statesman lies in the ability to reverse those theories in the political reality matured in the second half of the nineteenth century. In this sense he established fruitful relations with the Hungarian patriots and especially with Lajos Kossuth and György Klapka.
Keywords: Camillo Benso Conte di Cavour, Lajos Kossuth, György Klapka, Unity of Italy, Insurrection of Hungary.
Prehistory of Italian Geopolitics. The Reception «Zeitschrift für Geopolitik» in Italian Geographical Journals Between 1920s and Early-1930s, by Nicola Bassoni
The history of Italian geopolitics started in mid-1930s, as the young geographer Ernesto Massi adopted thesis and methods of German geopolitics. In 1939 Massi and Giorgio Roletto published Geopolitica, the geopolitical journal of fascist Italy. In order to understand the Italian reception of German geopolitics, as well as the relationship between fascist and National Socialist geopolitics, historians generally focus on this period. However, Italian geographers (such as Roberto Almagià) began dealing with German geopolitics since early-1920s, and hence they played a role of the utmost importance in preparing the ground for the following reception of German geopolitics in the Italian intellectual circle. The present study analyses this neglected phase of relations between Italian political geography and German geopolitics, by reconstructing the first reactions of Italian geographical journals to the «Zeitschrift für Geopolitik» and Karl Haushofer’s works from both theoretical and political sides.
Keywords: Geopolitics; Political Geography; Roberto Almagià; Karl Haushofer.
Armando Sapori and Gino Luzzatto. Alumnus and master: two historians and their correspondence, by Francesco Zavattoni
The purpose of this study is to describe some aspects of the deep relationship between Armando Sapori and Gino Luzzatto, starting from the recurring themes that emerge from the letters they exchanged between 1926 and 1945. The analysis of the letters allows us to identify numerous aspects of the link between the two historians. Specifically, a series of events and practices carried out over the years have been analyzed, such as the routine of the revision of Sapori’s manuscripts by Luzzatto, the play of mutual quotes and reviews, the references to university competitions and International historical sciences conferences. At a higher level of analysis, the common methodological vision is reflected in the overlapping positions taken in some historiographical querelles, whose echoes are found in the letters: fugitive servant topic linked to Johan Plesner, the interpretation of the medieval economy by Werner Sombart and the Thomistic question linked to the figure of Amintore Fanfani. The overall picture offers a series of ideas on what – in addition to be a bond of deep friendship – was a real pupil-teacher relationship.
Keywords: Armando Sapori, Gino Luzzatto, Pupil, Master, Correspondence.
Health and safety at work. Italian experiences and international context 1906-2006, by Caterina Barillari, Raffaella Biscioni, Sergio Iavicoli, Luigi Tomassini
Recently, even in Italy, historians have shown a renewed interest in the subject of the labour history: this has also led to a greater amount of research on the health and safety conditions of workers. Italy has played a rather important role in this field: the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH) was founded in 1906 in Milan, having always a significant Italian presence in its governing bodies; the occupational safety sector at the ILO (International Labour Organization) for the first twenty years was directed by an Italian, and the experience of the CRD (Center for Research and Documentation of Risks and Damages from Work) in the post-war Italy (1974-85) has had a notable echo abroad. The essay reviews the historiography on the subject over the last fifty years, also describing some ongoing research and some tools developed to facilitate access to sources.
Keywords: Labour History, Health and safety conditions of worker, Historiography.
The international launch of fashion and tourism in Florence, 1951-1965: Paths of a complementary development, by Letizia Pagliai
After the Second World War, the drivers of Florence’s economic development were the birth of high fashion shows and – at the same time – the reaffirmation of its international tourism. The US political choices were crucial, supported by the initiative of a long-time entrepreneur, G.B. Giorgini, who was responsible for the creation of the first fashion shows. This study contributes to the understanding of such a process, and argues that, amongst a number of factors, the consistency of the coordinated actions of public and private institutions together with economic stakeholders was determining for the complementary development of fashion and tourism.
Keywords: Fashion, Tourism, Economic Institutions, Florence, United States.